On Sunday, November 10, the Turkish commemorate the death anniversary of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey. Although this day is not an official public holiday, it is marked throughout the country with a moment of silence.

Ataturk was born in 188, and his surname Atatürk, was granted to him in 1934. It literally means “Father of Turks”. Atatürk was the leader of the Turkish National Movement in the Turkish War of Independence and he established the Republic of Turkey in 1923. He became its first president and his extensive reforms helped convert Turkey into a modern and secular nation-state.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died at 9:05 on November 10, 1938. Every year, all of Turkey observes a moment of silence on November 10 to honor Atatürk’s memory. At 9:05, sirens go off across the country. Everyone stops and keeps silence for a minute, remembering Atatürk and his accomplishments. Many people lay flowers and wreaths at Atatürk’s memorials.

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